Driving down the roads may seem like a simple task, but some kind of navigation system is navigating almost all cars and trains, as well as boats and airplanes. We use those systems for personal navigation every day too. Graphs are used for modeling and navigating complex network problems, such as transportation network.
Pathfinding algorithms are one of the classical graph problems and have been researched since the 19th century. The shortest path algorithm calculates a path between two nodes in a graph such that the total sum of the edge weights is minimized. A navigation system that always navigates you down the shortest routes and makes your trip as fast as possible can be created using the shortest path algorithm.
When traveling from one airport to another, airplanes use specific locations to navigate in the sky. These locations are called waypoints and are defined by their coordinates. Modern airplanes track these waypoints using radio navigation systems such as GPS or VOR. Like many other aviation elements, both airports and waypoints have unique ICAO code names, and as such, can be represented by nodes of a graph. Airports and waypoints can be different nodes, and the airways between them can be the relationships.
Real-time road congestion detection can improve traffic safety and route planning. If we put all data into a graph database and use streaming graph algorithms, we can detect road congestion.
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