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Memgraph vs. Amazon Neptune: A Graph Database Comparison

Memgraph vs. Amazon Neptune: A Graph Database Comparison

By Kruno Golubic
7 min readDecember 21, 2023


Choosing the right graph database is a critical decision that hinges on understanding specific technical features, performance capabilities, and the potential for platform vendor lock-in. This comparison examines Memgraph, known for its high-performance in-memory graph database, and Amazon Neptune, recognized for its cloud-native approach and RDF store capabilities.

While both operate as robust Graph DBMS platforms, a key differentiator lies in their deployment environments. Neptune's exclusive operation within the AWS cloud may pose a concern for organizations wary of vendor lock-in. In contrast, Memgraph offers the flexibility to be deployed on various infrastructures, including your own, avoiding such constraints. We'll explore their primary database models, query languages, data storage methods, scalability, and implications of their deployment strategies to guide users in making an informed decision that aligns with their application needs and strategic IT considerations.


Memgraph is an open-source, in-memory graph database, recognized for its high performance and efficiency in real-time analytics. Its architecture is designed for rapid data processing, catering to applications that require fast query responses and instant data analysis. As an open-source platform, Memgraph offers a degree of flexibility and community engagement. It is available in various editions to suit different organizational needs: Community Edition, Enterprise Edition and Memgraph Cloud. These varied offerings ensure that Memgraph can be adapted to a wide range of applications, from small-scale projects to large enterprise solutions, with the added benefit of cloud adaptability through Memgraph Cloud.

Amazon Neptune

Amazon Neptune, launched by Amazon in 2017, is a cloud-based graph database service. It uniquely supports both Graph DBMS and RDF store models, effectively aligning with cloud infrastructure and the range of services offered by AWS. This dual model capability provides Neptune with a degree of flexibility and scalability in cloud environments, making it suitable for complex, large-scale graph applications. As a cloud-native service, Neptune is scalable, allowing users to easily adjust resources in response to changing demands. This, combined with the robust and secure infrastructure of AWS, ensures that Neptune can efficiently handle massive datasets and complex queries.

Basic Characteristics and Their Comparison

Selecting the appropriate graph database involves a detailed comparison of fundamental characteristics such as query language and access methods, deployment flexibility, performance, scalability, and pricing models. These elements are critical in determining how each database aligns with specific technical needs and organizational goals.

  • Query Language and Access Methods: The choice of query language influences how users interact with the database, affecting everything from data retrieval efficiency to the ease of complex query construction.
  • Deployment Flexibility: This aspect determines the database's adaptability to different infrastructural setups, impacting deployment strategies and future scalability.
  • Performance: A critical factor for applications where speed and responsiveness are paramount, performance benchmarks can significantly influence the choice of database.
  • Scalability: The ability to efficiently scale up or down according to the data volume and user demand is crucial in adapting to evolving business needs.
  • Pricing Models: Cost considerations, including upfront expenses and long-term financial implications, are essential in aligning the database choice with budgetary constraints and ROI expectations.

Query Language and Access Methods

Understanding the nuances and use cases of these different query languages is important for taking the full potential of a graph database. Memgraph uses Cypher, the most widely adopted, fully specified, and open query language for property graph databases. Cypher's similarity to SQL makes it particularly accessible for developers, facilitating a smooth transition for those already familiar with traditional database query languages. Its declarative nature allows for expressing complex graph patterns in a more intuitive way, making it well-suited for a wide range of graph-related operations, from simple lookups to complex traversals and pathfinding queries.

Amazon Neptune, on the other hand, offers a more diverse range of access methods, including OpenCypher, RDF 1.1/SPARQL 1.1, and TinkerPop Gremlin. This multi-language support opens up a realm of possibilities for developers, catering to a wide spectrum of use cases and data models. OpenCypher brings the advantages of Cypher to Neptune, while SPARQL, the standard RDF query language, is essential for applications that work with semantic web data. Gremlin, part of the Apache TinkerPop graph computing framework, offers a functional, data-flow style language for traversing graph structures. This variety in query languages makes Neptune a versatile choice, especially for applications that demand flexibility in handling diverse data models, including graph analytics, knowledge graphs, and complex networked data.

Deployment Flexibility

Amazon Neptune is designed exclusively for deployment within the AWS cloud environment. This limitation means that it can only be utilized on AWS infrastructure, which may be a consideration for organizations with specific cloud strategies or those looking to avoid vendor lock-in. In contrast, Memgraph offers greater flexibility in terms of deployment. It can be installed on your own infrastructure, providing control over the hosting environment and data. This flexibility is particularly advantageous for organizations with existing infrastructure investments or specific compliance requirements. Memgraph supports Docker, which simplifies deployment and scaling. Docker containers make it easier to manage, deploy, and scale Memgraph instances, providing a convenient and efficient way to handle the database in various environments. Additionally, it's important to note that Memgraph also offers a cloud-based solution, Memgraph Cloud, which runs on AWS infrastructure. This provides users with the option to leverage cloud benefits, such as scalability and reduced infrastructure management, while still enjoying the robust features of Memgraph. This distinction in deployment options between Memgraph and Amazon Neptune is crucial, as it directly impacts the adaptability of the database to different organizational needs and IT strategies. The data storage approach of Memgraph is centered around in-memory processing, prioritizing rapid data access and real-time analytics. This architecture is particularly advantageous for scenarios demanding quick response times and high throughput.

Performance and Scalability

Memgraph's in-memory architecture is key to its high performance, catering to applications that demand swift query execution and real-time data processing. This setup ensures rapid data access and minimal latency, making it particularly suitable for scenarios requiring immediate analysis. Such scenarios include financial analytics, where quick market data interpretation is crucial, real-time recommendation systems that adapt instantly to user interactions, network monitoring, where immediate threat detection is vital, and logistics optimization that requires real-time route adjustments. Amazon Neptune architecture is optimized for handling large-scale graph data, offering seamless scalability and integration with other AWS services. This is especially beneficial for applications that are already cloud-centric and require extensive data processing capabilities.

Pricing and Accessibility

Memgraph offers a Community Edition, providing a full-featured version of its platform at no cost. This approach allows users to extensively test and evaluate the software before any financial commitment, making it accessible to a wide range of users and applications. In contrast, Amazon Neptune operates on a commercial, cloud-based pricing model. While this can mean higher costs, it also offers the scalability and integration benefits of AWS, making it a viable option for enterprises that require extensive cloud infrastructure.


The choice between Memgraph and Amazon Neptune should be carefully considered in the context of not only their technical capabilities but also their long-term implications on your IT strategy. Memgraph’s in-memory processing offers speed and efficiency, ideal for real-time analytics and high-performance applications. Its deployment flexibility avoids potential platform lock-in, providing more control over your infrastructure. On the other hand, Amazon Neptune, with its cloud-native design and RDF support, excels in scalability and flexibility, particularly for large-scale, cloud-based applications. However, its exclusive operation within the AWS ecosystem could lead to vendor lock-in, a significant factor for organizations planning their long-term data infrastructure. Balancing these considerations is key to choosing a graph database that not only meets your current application requirements but also aligns with your future IT strategy and operational flexibility.

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