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Betweenness Centrality and Other Essential Centrality Measures in Network Analysis

Betweenness Centrality and Other Essential Centrality Measures in Network Analysis

By Ani Ghazaryan September 1, 2023
Betweenness Centrality

In network analysis, centrality measures play a pivotal role in identifying the most influential and crucial nodes within a network. Networks can represent a wide range of systems, from social interactions to transportation infrastructure and online communication. Understanding centrality measures, including betweenness centrality, is essential for comprehending the dynamics and flow of information, influence, and resources within these networks.

What is centrality?

Centrality is a concept that evaluates the importance of nodes (vertices) within a network. It assists in quantifying how well-connected or influential a node is within the broader network structure. Centrality measures help researchers and analysts uncover critical nodes that act as key connectors, information brokers, or even potential bottlenecks in the network.

Understanding betweenness centrality

Widely used to assess a node's control over the flow of information, communication, or resources between other nodes, betweenness centrality is one of the most crucial centrality measures. And in essence, a node with high betweenness centrality holds significant influence over the interactions between other nodes.

Mathematically, betweenness centrality is calculated by determining the proportion of shortest paths between all pairs of nodes that pass through a particular node.

Betweenness centrality algorithm

Betweenness centrality is a fundamental algorithm in network analysis that quantifies the influence or control that a node has over the flow of information, resources, or interactions within a network. The core idea behind this algorithm is to identify nodes that act as bridges or critical intermediaries in a network, as they lie on many of the shortest paths connecting pairs of nodes. These nodes have a high betweenness centrality score, indicating their pivotal role in maintaining network connectivity and facilitating the transfer of information or resources.

The algorithm's calculation involves finding all the shortest paths between pairs of nodes in the network. For each node, it computes the fraction of these shortest paths that pass through that particular node. Nodes that lie on numerous shortest paths between other nodes receive higher betweenness centrality scores. The algorithm is typically implemented using techniques like breadth-first search (BFS) or Dijkstra's algorithm to compute shortest paths efficiently.

Applications of betweenness centrality

Social networks: In social networks, nodes with high betweenness centrality often serve as connectors between different social circles. These individuals control the spread of information between distinct groups, making them key players in information dissemination.

Transportation networks: Nodes with high betweenness centrality can represent crucial intersections or hubs in transportation networks. Disruption or congestion at these nodes could lead to significant delays or disruptions throughout the network.

railroad

Communication networks: Last but not least, in the digital age, betweenness centrality is vital in understanding how information spreads through online platforms. Nodes with high betweenness can influence the viral spread of a blog post, for example.

Betweenness centrality in unweighted vs. weighted graphs

Unweighted graphs

In unweighted graphs, all edges are considered equal, and to calculate betweenness centrality, you'll need to focus solely on the number of shortest paths that pass through a node.

For example, in a social network represented as an unweighted graph, a person with high betweenness centrality would be someone who frequently acts as a link between different social groups, facilitating the flow of information between otherwise disconnected clusters of individuals. In transportation networks, they might represent critical junctions that connect various routes.

Weighted graphs

Weighted graphs introduce an additional layer of complexity by assigning values (weights) to edges, which can represent various attributes like distance, cost, or capacity (also, see types of weighted graphs: directed vs. undirected graphs). In this context, betweenness centrality considers not just the number of shortest paths but also the cumulative weight of these paths that pass through a node.

In a weighted social network, an individual's betweenness centrality now takes into account not only how often they bridge different groups but also the weighted significance of the interactions they facilitate. If the weights represent the strength of friendships, for instance, a person with high betweenness centrality might not only connect groups but also facilitate more meaningful or influential interactions.

Other essential centrality measures

While betweenness centrality is undoubtedly a cornerstone measure in network analysis, a comprehensive understanding of network dynamics requires exploring several other centrality metrics. These measures shed light on different aspects of a node's importance within a network and collectively contribute to a well-rounded perspective.

Degree centrality

Now, degree centrality is a straightforward and intuitive centrality measure, as it focuses on counting the number of connections a node has. Nodes with a high degree of centrality are often referred to as "hubs" or "connectors" since they are extensively connected to other nodes.

In social networks, high-degree nodes might represent individuals who are highly social and have numerous connections. In information dissemination, these nodes can be instrumental in quickly spreading information to a wide audience. They serve as crucial access points for external nodes seeking to communicate with various parts of the network. Identifying nodes with a high degree of centrality helps pinpoint nodes that are directly influential due to their extensive reach.

degree centrality

Closeness centrality

On the flip side, closeness centrality focuses on how efficiently a node can interact with all other nodes in the network. It measures the average length of the shortest paths between a given node and all other nodes. Nodes with high closeness centrality are central in terms of their ability to rapidly transmit information throughout the network.

Closeness centrality is particularly relevant in scenarios where speed and efficient communication are paramount, such as in transportation systems or emergency response networks.

closeness centrality

Eigenvector centrality

Eigenvector centrality introduces a nuanced perspective by considering not only the quantity of connections but also the quality of those connections. A node's eigenvector centrality score is influenced by its connections to other highly influential nodes.

In other words, a node connected to nodes with high centrality will itself have higher eigenvector centrality. This measure reflects a node's indirect influence within the network. Nodes with high eigenvector centrality might not have an extensive number of connections, but their connections are influential, allowing them to wield significant control and spread influence across the network. This metric is particularly relevant for identifying nodes that have the potential to shape the network's behavior through their association with key influencers.

eigenvector centrality

PageRank centrality

As a classic measure that originated from Google's PageRank algorithm, PageRank centrality is designed to rank the importance of web pages based on their incoming links. Back to the context of networks, PageRank assesses a node's significance based on both the quantity and quality of incoming connections. Nodes that receive connections from other important nodes contribute more to their PageRank score. This metric is notably used in web networks, citation networks, and any scenario where the quality of connections matters.

pagerank centrality

Concluding thoughts

Understanding the dynamics of information, influence, and resource flow is indispensable when dealing with networks. Centrality measures covered earlier, including betweenness centrality and other essential metrics, provide a quantitative framework to identify key nodes and their impact on network behavior. By grasping these measures, you can make informed decisions to optimize communication, resource allocation, and overall network efficiency.

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